The Multigraph


The Interacting with Print Research Group is launching an innovative collaborative book project as part of its ongoing attempt to change how we think about print media. Taking as its theme the subtitle of our group, the “multigraph” will address the variety of cultural practices of intermediality prevalent in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Our aim is to investigate how individuals interacted with printed matter, how they used print to interact with each other, and how print itself interacted with other influential media from the period, such as handwriting, illustration, sculpture, the theatre, musical performance, public readings, and polite conversation. “Interactive” is a word most often associated with digital technologies, but we contend that a nuanced and historicized concept of interactivity is key to developing a deeper understanding of print technology. The multigraph will provide readers with a systematic overview of key concepts for the study of this vital period of media transition, from print’s emergence as the predominant communications technology in Europe until the onset of electronic media in the twentieth century.

The multigraph not only aims to challenge how we think about the history of print media. It also aims to challenge how we as scholars write about the history of print. Putting our own thematic concerns to work, the goal of the multigraph is to draw on the interactions of both digital and print media, ultimately taking the form of a printed book, but one whose creation utilizes the collaborative tools of online communication. Eschewing the two traditional models of scholarly publishing – the monograph (one author, one idea) or the edited volume (one conductor and numerous players playing their own tune) – the multigraph is a collaborative effort: a symphony of ideas in which the performers are the conductors.

One of the primary arguments of the Interacting with Print research group is that print still has a valuable role to play as a — if not the — central medium of humanistic communication. The relative stability of the printed book versus the all too fluid dynamics of the digital interface is a core component of the values associated with the durability and referencability of humanities research. New technologies allow us to challenge older paradigms of print production, however, emphasizing values of process, community, and collaboration over and above the long history of scholarly hermeticism, hierarchy, and charismatic insight that have largely characterized humanistic inquiry.

At the same time, the collaboratively authored monograph can be a useful tool for addressing one of the central problems of today’s scholarly landscape: the surplus of research. As no doubt many of us acutely feel, with so many journal articles and new books (not to mention blog posts and websites) appearing, it is increasingly difficult to make an impact on any particular field of study today. In bringing together a wide range of scholars, but in such a way that works towards synthesis rather than differentiation, the aim of the multigraph is to address these dual problems of coherence and scale. It combines the multi-perspectival nature of the edited collection with the unified vision of the monograph. In so doing, we think the fusion of print and digital media will prove in the end to offer a substantial contribution to how we as academics think and communicate.

The project will consist of three stages:

Seeding. (Nov – May) In this stage we ask participants to offer brief contributions (roughly 1500 words) on a key concept for the volume from any area of their own research (see the seedbed for examples). Inherent in the idea of the seed is that it be generative, motivating further additions from other contributors. The ideal seed is one that can grow in several directions. It encourages us to think about the openness of our research questions.

Grafting. (June – Oct) During the second stage, authors will be expected to expand on at least two seeds of other authors (roughly 500-1000 words per graft), but may contribute in any way to any of the available seeds. As in any good garden, the point of the graft is that it must take – it requires consideration of the ideas of another and an attempt to draw connections with thoughts that are not one’s own. In order for a graft to survive, and to promote subsequent grafts, it must integrate well.

Pressing. (Nov – Jan) The final stage will be the fixation of the project into a stable form, to shift from the vitality of the web to the more permanent form of the hortus siccus, the specimen book of pressed flowers. For this stage, we will ask authors to become editors, engaging in the pruning and refining that is necessary for any finished product. Each author will be responsible for editing his or her own seed/section, but all authors can edit all parts of the multigraph. There is no hierarchy between authors and editors in this project.

The intended outcome of this process is to publish a printed book. Why, you might ask, a printed book in this our late age of print? Because we believe that the ability of print to order, shape, and fix an argument is essential to the mission of the humanities. Humanistic ideas are meant to be durable, to have a periodic impact, never timely and then immediately out of date. Print allows for the type of reception we believe in — extended, yet concentrated engagement with a text. We feel this type of reading is essential for the mission of the humanities and is not — or not yet — entirely possible online. Producing a print object will ensure that our collaborative work is enrolled in the durable system of preservation that has come to be known as the modern research library. We want to argue for the importance of the intellectual stability and accessibility that libraries have stood for and that we do not yet see replicated online.

Finally, if there is a polemical edge to this project, it is this: producing a print object with multiple authors will move in a different direction than the academy’s increasing over-reliance on measures of accountability, in which, unable to measure what we value most, we have come to value what we can measure. Effacing the acute measurability of academic work is a first step in moving past the absurd — and in our view deleterious — tendency towards quantifying the assessment of learning and research today. It is time to develop new models of creativity and thought that are not easily subsumed within the accountant’s black arts. This project intends to affirm the argument that when it comes to the making of ideas the whole is always greater than the sum of the parts.

The Chapbooks Digitization Project


The McGill Library’s Chapbook Collection digitization project began in 2011. Over nine hundred British and American chapbooks published between 1780 and 1878 from the Rare Books and Special Collections have been digitized. For the purpose of this digitization project, the following definition of a chapbook by G. A. Glaister has been used:

“a paper-covered booklet costing a penny or so, as sold by travelling hawkers (chapmen) who included bundles of them with the buttons, threads, laces and so on which they carried from village to village. Chapbooks were usually about 6 in. by 4 in., had up to twenty-four pages illustrated with crude but lively wood cuts, and had a decorated cover title.”

The digitization project will widen scholarly study and public awareness about chapbooks. The Library hopes to have a prototype website available by the summer of 2013. The resulting resource will provide page images, searchable PDFs and TEI-encoded texts.

This project was made possible through a generous donation from the Harold Crabtree Foundation.

For more information about the project, you can visit the project’s blog.

A New Chapter

We are happy to announce that the Interacting with Print Research Group has been re-funded to continue its activities through 2018. Congratulations to our new Principal Investigator, Jonathan Sachs, on his successful grant application! We’ll be going through a period of transition as operations shift from McGill to Concordia, but stay tuned as the IwP plot will certainly take some exciting turns in the months and years ahead.

Posted on Monday, September 8, 2014

Reception to launch the “Writing in Company” Rare Books Exhibition

Thursday, April 10, 2014 – 17:00 to 19:00
4th floor lobby, McLennan Library Building, McGill University
Organized by Interacting with Print

wic_image_webInteracting with Print, in collaboration with the Rare Books and Special Collections of McGill Library, launches the exhibition “Writing in Company. Forms of Collaboration in Artistic Works and Scientific Knowledge (1700-1914)” with a reception and special presentation, to be held from 5-7PM on Thursday, April 10, on the 4th floor of the McLennan Library Building. Hors d’oeuvres and light refreshments will be served. The presentation will begin at 6PM. Space is limited—we kindly ask that you let us know by April 9th if you plan to attend.

About the exhibition
In its production, as in its circulation, print relies on a web of institutional and personal interactions. Collaboration is integral to print’s very existence. This exhibition aims to demonstrate the essentially collaborative nature of print and thus call into question the commonly perceived equation, “one work = one author.”

Shaped by the contexts of sociability in which it takes place, collaboration factors into a wide array of practices, from simple parlour games to institutional protocol. It arises from the definition of a group identity, confirming this identity or questioning it through rebellion. As the expression of a community of thought, collaboration is inherent to scientific undertakings that surpass the competence of an individual, or of artistic visions that transcend disciplinary boundaries.

Whether concealed in anonymity or institutional patronage, or, on the contrary, revealing the signatures of all participants, collaboration invites us into a fascinating exploration of its innerworkings. Collective creativity occurs in delicate balance between unity and diversity, partnership and competition, equality and power. A more or less explicit reflection of interpersonal cooperation, collaborative work often contains, within the laboratory of its production, references to other works and themes. In this way, the complexity of collaborative projects is often increased through intertextual and intermedial dialogue, fostering the production of new works.

“Writing in Company” features examples of collaboration among writers associated with the rise of popular literature (novel and theatre), among writers and illustrators, among members of a salon, an artistic movement, a religious order, an academic institution or a scientific expedition. The performing arts may present the most striking example, illustrating how even the interpretation and the mise-en-scène become integral parts of the creative process.

Curators: Stéphanie Favreau and Adina Ruiu, under the direction of Marie-Claude Felton (McGill University), Ann-Marie Holland (McGill Library’s Rare Books and Special Collections), Nikola von Merveldt (Université de Montréal)
– See more at:


“Book-Men, Book Clubs, and the Romantic Literary Sphere”: A Round Table with Author Ina Ferris

Friday, November 6, 2015 – 15:30 to 17:00
LB 646, McConnell Building, 6th Floor, Concordia University, 1400 de Maisonneuve Blvd. W., Montreal, Quebec
Organized by Interacting with Print
book_menAs outliers inserting themselves into the matrix of literary production rather than remaining within that of reception, both book-men and book clubs stepped on literary toes by producing, writing, and circulating books. In the process they expanded fundamental points of literary orientation in directions not coincident with those of the literary sphere, provoking controversy and debate. Using a wide range of historical, archival and literary history, this study makes visible a bookish array of alterative networks, genres, and locations that were obscured as the literary sphere secured its authority as arbiter of the modern book in the early nineteenth century.

Book-Men, Book Clubs, and the Romantic Literary Sphere, written by Ina Ferris, was published in 2015 as part of the Palgrave Studies in the Enlightenment, Romanticism and Cultures of Print series. Ina Ferris is Emeritus Professor of English at the University of Ottawa, Canada. Her books include The Achievement of Literary Authority: Gender, History and the Waverley Novels, The Romantic National Tale and the Question of Ireland, and Bookish Histories: Books, Literature, and Commercial Modernity, 1700-1900 (co-edited with Paul Keen).

Jon Klancher (Carnegie Mellon)
Deirdre Lynch (Harvard)
Andrew Piper (McGill)
Ina Ferris (Ottawa)
Jonathan Sachs (Concordia)

Open to the Public.

– See more at:


Interacting with Print is an interdisciplinary, interinstitutional research group devoted to the study of European print culture in the period 1700-1900.

Since 2005, our group has developed and continues to elaborate an innovative approach to the study of print culture based on the concept of interactivity. We investigate how people interacted with printed matter, how they used print media to interact with other people and how printed texts and images interacted within complex media ecologies. ‘Interactive’ is a word most often associated with digital technologies, but we contend that a nuanced and historicized concept of interactivity is key to developing a deeper understanding of print, which emerged as the predominant communications technology in Europe in the period 1700-1900.

Print was undoubtedly important before and after this period, but European culture can most fully be described as a ‘print culture’ in these two centuries. From the lapse of the Licensing Act in 1695 that freed English printers from government control to the technological innovations of 1897 that allowed photographs to be printed in newspapers, our period saw print in all its forms move to the centre of cultural life, without eliminating other communications media.

Collaborative research allows us to build a solid understanding of the cultures of print in a way that disaggregated studies could not. Bringing together five scholars and three collaborators from departments of English, History, German, and Modern Languages, trained in the analysis of different media and working on different national contexts, our team’s own interactions aim to produce a distinctive new approach. Interactivity is both our topic and our method: in order to study the interactions of the past, we will create new kinds of interaction in the present.


The Book History BiblioGraph is a new kind of bibliographic system that lies at the intersection of critical and data-driven approaches to scholarly research tools. As a discipline, Book History’s greatest strength, its multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual approach to questions of textual circulation, has become, for its practitioners, its greatest liability. As they are faced with bibliographic databases that rely on traditional disciplinary and subject categories to catalogue records, researchers in this emerging field lack tools that can aid them in making the kinds of connections between disparate resources that are vital to their scholarly work. The BiblioGraph aims to provide an experimental solution to the data sprawl that plagues Book History by creating an online application that is as much a thinking aid as it is a finding aid. The beta version, now in development, will catalogue a variety of Book Historical resources, drawn from the disciplines of Literary Studies, Communication Studies, Art History, History, and the Social Sciences, by creating links between records using a combination of three non-traditional informants: text-mined lexical frequencies, a carefully selected list of critically determined keywords, and anonymously collected user statistics. Using these metrics, the BiblioGraph will create a topology of relationality: users coming to this site will be able to explore a dynamic, interactive visual map of the field of Book History wherein distance will be a measure of resource similarity. Individual searches will take users to specific locations on this map, allowing them to see the both the records that best match their search and in which virtual neighborhood these results lie, regardless of each resource’s medium or disciplinary affiliation. By panning, zooming and manipulating their virtual environment, scholars will gain access to new clusters of books, articles and dissertations that lie just around the corner from the texts they are familiar with, but which may be disciplinary or subject-wise very far removed. The “recommendation engine” that lies at the heart of the BiblioGraph, will now let scholars forge these connections in an intuitive virtual environment that we hope will be a revolutionary approach to the search, retrieval, and display of bibliographic information. Development of the database and the interface is currently underway, supported by funding from the Social Sciences and Humanities Council of Canada. A beta version is planned for Winter 2012. If you are interested in taking part in the beta-testing process or would like to learn more about this project, please contact us for more information.